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The shape of a protein determines its function.) Genetic algorithms for training neural networks often use this method of encoding also.
(See the section on Methods of change for more detail about the genetic operators.) Another strategy, developed principally by John Koza of Stanford University and called , represents programs as branching data structures called trees (Koza et al. Figure 1: Three simple program trees of the kind normally used in genetic programming.These candidates may be solutions already known to work, with the aim of the GA being to improve them, but more often they are generated at random.The GA then evaluates each candidate according to the fitness function.The evolutionary postulate of common descent has aided the development of new medical drugs and techniques by giving researchers a good idea of which organisms they should experiment on to obtain results that are most likely to be relevant to humans.Finally, the principle of selective breeding has been used to great effect by humans to create customized organisms unlike anything found in nature for their own benefit.